Physics Sample Paper with Solution, Problems, NEET AIPMT Physics Ray Optics, Rotational Motion, Simple Harmonic Motion SHM, Elasticity, Fluids and Solids , Thermal Properties of Matter, The Ideal Gas Law
Mechanical Properties of Solids and Fluids
Download NEET AIPMT Physics MCQ on Mechanical Properties of Solids and Fluids Practice Sample Papers / Problems with Solution 2017-2018
Subtopic : (a) Pressure (b) Streamline flow (c) Bernoulli’s principle (d) Viscosity (e) Reynolds number (f) Surface tension (g) Summary (h) Points to ponder (i) Exercises (j) Additional exercises (k) Appendix (l) Elastic behaviour of solids (m) Stress and strain (n) Hooke’s law (o) Stress-strain curve (p) Elastic moduli (q) Applications of elastic (r) behaviour of materials (s) Summary (t) Points to ponder (u) Exercises (v) Additional exercises
01. NEET / AIPMT Physics Solids and Fluids MCQ Pattern Sample Papers => Download pdf
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Mechanical Properties Solids and Fluids
Fluid is the name given to a substance which begins to flow when external force is applied on it. Liquids and gases are fluids. Fluids do not have their own shape but take the shape of the containing vessel. The branch of physics which deals with the study of fluids at rest is called hydrostatics and the branch which deals with the study of fluids in motion is called hydrodynamics.
Definition of Fluids :
The term fluid refers to a substance that can flow and does not have a shape of its own. For example liquid and gases.
Fluids includes property :
(A) Density (B) Viscosity (C) Bulk modulus of elasticity (D) pressure (E) specific gravity
The normal force exerted by liquid at rest on a given surface in contact with it is called thrust of liquid on that surface.
The normal force (or thrust) exerted by liquid at rest per unit area of the surface in contact with it is called pressure of liquid or hydrostatic pressure.
If F be the normal force acting on a surface of area A in contact with liquid, then pressure exerted by liquid on this surface is P = F/A
Consequences of pressure
Railway tracks are laid on large sized wooden or iron sleepers. This is because the weight (force) of the train is spread over a large area of the sleeper. This reduces the pressure acting on the ground and hence prevents the yielding of ground under the weight of the train.
A sharp knife is more effective in cutting the objects than a blunt knife.
The pressure exerted = Force/area. The sharp knife transmits force over a small area as compared to the blunt knife. Hence the pressure exerted in case of sharp knife is more than in case of blunt knife.
A camel walks easily on sand but a man cannot inspite of the fact that a camel is much heavier than man.
This is because the area of camel’s feet is large as compared to man’s feet. So the pressure exerted by camel on the sand is very small as compared to the pressure exerted by man. Due to large pressure, sand under the feet of man yields and hence he cannot walk easily on sand.
Surface Tension :
Property of a liquid due to which its free surface tries to have mini surface area and behaves as if it were under tension some what like a stretched elastic membrane is called surface tension. A small liquid drop has spherical shape, as due to surface tension the liquid surface tries to have minimum surface area and for a given volume, the sphere has minimum surface area.
Factors Affecting Surface Tension.
Surface Energy : The molecules on the liquid surface experience net downward force. So to bring a molecule from the interior of the liquid to the free surface, some work is required to be done against the intermolecular force of attraction, which will be stored as potential energy of the molecule on the surface.
Excess Pressure :
Due to the property of surface tension a drop or bubble tries to contract and so compresses the matter enclosed. This in turn increases the internal pressure which prevents further contraction and equilibrium is achieved. So in equilibrium the pressure inside a bubble or drop is greater than outside and the difference of pressure between two sides of the liquid surface is called excess pressure. In case of a drop excess pressure is provided by hydrostatic pressure of the liquid within the drop while in case of bubble the gauge pressure of the gas confined in the bubble provides it.
Shape of Liquid Meniscus :
When a capillary tube is dipped in a liquid, the liquid surface becomes curved near the point of contact. This curved surface is due to the resultant of two forces i.e. the force of cohesion and the force of adhesion. The curved surface of the liquid is called meniscus of the liquid.
When a solid body slides over another solid body, a frictional-force begins to act between them. This force opposes the relative motion of the bodies. Similarly, when a layer of a liquid slides over another layer of the same liquid, a frictional-force acts between them which opposes the relative motion between the layers. This force is called ‘internal frictional-force’.
The layer of the liquid which is in contact with the surface is at rest, while the velocity of other layers increases with distance from the fixed surface. In the Fig., the lengths of the arrows represent the increasing velocity of the layers. Thus there is a relative motion between adjacent layers of the liquid. Let us consider three parallel layers a, b and c. Their velocities are in the increasing order. The layer a tends to retard the layer b, while b tends to retard c.
Thus each layer tends to decrease the velocity of the layer above it. Similarly, each layer tends to increase the velocity of the layer below it. This means that in between any two layers of the liquid, internal tangential forces act which try to destroy the relative motion between the layers.
Flow of Liquid In a Tube : Critical Velocity
If all particles of the liquid passing through a particular point in the tube move along the same path, the flow” of the liquid is called ‘stream-lined flow’. This occurs only when the velocity of flow of the liquid is below a certain limiting value called ‘critical velocity’. When the velocity of flow exceeds the critical velocity, the flow is no longer stream-lined but becomes turbulent. In this type of flow, the motion of the liquid becomes zig-zag and eddy-currents are developed in it.
ELASTICITY AND PLASTICITY
The property of a material body by virtue of which it regains its original configuration (i.e. shape and size) when the external deforming force is removed is called elasticity. The property of the material body by virtue of which it does not regain its original configuration when the external force is removed is called plasticity.
(i) Deforming force (ii) Perfectly Elastic body (iii) Perfectly Plastic body (iv) Cause of Elasticity
When deforming force is applied on the body then the equal restoring force in opposite direction is developed inside the body. The restoring forces per unit area of the body is called stress.
Breaking force/area of cross section => Breaking Stress.
Breakin g stress is constant for a material
The working stress is always kept lower than that of a breaking stress so that safety factor = breaking stress/working stress may have a large value.
Breaking force depends upon the area of the section of the wire of a given material.
Elongation or compression/original dimension => Breaking strain.
Breaking strain is constant for material.
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